CHEMISTRY HW ON ELEMENTS: ALL ABOUT CHLORINE!

    ALL ABOUT CHLORINE!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Atomic Number: 17

Atomic Weight: 35.453

Valence Electrons: 7

Shells: 2,8,7

Electron Configuration Notation: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 

Melting Point: 171.65 K (-101.5°C or -150.7°F)

Boiling Point: 239.11 K (-34.04°C or -29.27°F)

Ionization Energy: 12.968 eV

Atomic Radius: 100 pm

Ionic Radius (1- ion): 167 pm

Electronegativity: 3.16

Density: 0.003214 grams per cubic centimeter

Phase at Room Temperature: Gas

Element Classification: Non-metal

Period Number: 3    Group Number: 17    Group Name: Halogen

Discovered by: Carl Wilhelm Scheele 1774 (Sweden) but thought it was oxygen. Chlorine was named in 1810 by Sir Humphry Davy, who insisted it was an element.

Word Origin: Greek: khloros: greenish-yellow

History: Chlorine was first founded by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, a Swedish chemist, he combined the mineral pyrolusite (MnO2) with hydrochloric acid (HCl) in 1774. Thou, Scheele thought the gas produced in his experiment was oxygen, Sir Humphry Davy was the one who proved in 1810 that it was actually an element on its own. Chlorine is usually combined with almost all elements which means it was rare to never to find it free of nature.

Information on Chlorine: Chlorine should be handled with care for it may be very fatal and dangerous.The gas acts as an irritant for respiratory and other mucous membranes. The liquid form will burn the skin. Humans can smell as low as an amount of 3.5 ppm. A few big breaths at a concentration of 1000 ppm is usually very fatal to one. Chlorine is found in a combined state only, usually with sodium as common salt (NaCl), carnallite, and sylvite.

Uses:

Chlorine is widely used in making many everyday products. It is used for producing safe drinking water for the world. It is also extensively used in the production of paper products, dyestuffs, textiles, petroleum products, medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, food, solvents, paints, plastics, and many other consumer products.

Most of the chlorine produced is used to manufacture chlorinated compounds for sanitation, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and textile processing. Further use is in the manufacture of chlorates, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and in the extraction of bromine.

Organic chemistry also needs a lot from the element chlorine, both as an oxidizing agent and in substitution, since it often brings many desired properties in an organic compound when it is substituted for hydrogen, as one form of synthetic rubber.

Awesome Trivia on Chlorine:

  • Chlorine leaks in containers and are detected using ammonia. Ammonia reacts with chlorine and forms a white mist above the leak.
  • The most common natural chlorine compound on Earth is sodium chloride or table salt.
  • Chlorine is the 21st most abundant element in the Earth’s crust
  • Chlorine is the third most abundant element in the Earth’s oceans
  • Chlorine gas was used as a chemical weapon during World War I.
  • Chlorine is heavier than air and would form a deadly layer in low-lying foxholes and trenches.

Sources:

http://www.radiochemistry.org/periodictable/elements/17.html

http://chemistry.about.com/od/elementfacts/a/chlorine.htm

http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele017.html

http://www.chemicool.com/elements/chlorine.html

http://www.lenntech.com/periodic-chart-elements/ionization-energy.htm

http://www.webelements.com/chlorine/orbital_properties.html

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